<optgroup id="uswuq"></optgroup>
  • <nav id="uswuq"><strong id="uswuq"></strong></nav>
    <dd id="uswuq"><menu id="uswuq"></menu></dd>
  • <menu id="uswuq"></menu>
  • <menu id="uswuq"><tt id="uswuq"></tt></menu>
    <menu id="uswuq"></menu>

    燈具的發展史

    點擊次數:   更新時間:15/01/28 10:02:01     來源:www.0898zjc.com關閉分    享:
     

    燈的起源

    有光明的地方,就有人類文明。數萬年前,人類就已經懂得使用自然之火來御寒、燒烤和照明。三千多年前,人類開始使用簡單燈具承載火燭,書寫文明史。從粗糙的石燈到青銅燈,陶瓷燈到電燈,燈具的歷史變遷打上了深刻的時代烙印,同時也是社會經濟和文化的縮影。

    學會使用火,是人類進入文明的標志。大約在3萬年以前,人類發明了利用木頭之間相互摩擦生熱而取火的方法,即“鉆木取火”。

    認識與利用火,是人類文明史上的第一個偉大的創舉,它使人類結束了“茹毛飲血”的生活,使人類的腦與手的功能逐步進化,開始向人類文明邁進。從照明的角度來講,我們的祖先所使用的第一堆篝火,就是第一個照明的光源,也就是第一盞“燈”。

    燈是從豆演變而來

    春秋戰國時,照明用的燈具開始出現,豆就是當時照明所用的工具,它是依據當時的食器-豆的形狀制成。

    瓦豆燈,最早的燈具實物。

    豆,屬于先民貯藏熟食的盛器,用來制作燈具的豆,是一種細把淺盤豆,它演變成燈具的一個顯著特征,即在淺盤的中央突起一個尖錐形支釘,它是用來支插燈芯的。

    在野蠻時代,人類為了生存,白天最重要的活動是尋找食物,天一黑就睡覺。即使需要夜間走動,也可憑借天上朦朧的月光。

    我國商代的殷墟甲骨文中:“明”字,用的是方式圓形窗字及月亮表意,這就充分說明,引月光入窗是我們祖先最原始的夜間照明形式。

    燈的歷史

    “火”是人類祖先抵御猛獸的主要工具,燈也是因為“火”而得到發展。根據古書最早的記錄。燈具的出現始見與戰國。當時的燈具結構已比較完善,而且造型也很優美,可見在它以前,燈的發明和演變已經有了一個相當時期,只是工藝說明已經失傳。

    戰國時期的燈具以青銅質的為主體,多為貴族實用器。陶質燈因與傳統的陶豆無異,往往被當做陶豆,并沒歸于燈類。這類燈為下層社會所用,玉質燈造型精美是上層社會的實用器具。戰國時期的燈具造型除了個別多枝燈外,大致可分為人俑燈和仿日用器燈兩大類。

    人俑燈是戰國時期青銅燈最具代表性的器物。這些燈的人俑形象有男有女,多為身份卑微的當地人形象。持燈方式有站立兩臂張開,舉動呢個過頂,有的蹲坐,兩手前伸,托燈在前。一俑所持燈盤從一至三個不等。燈盤有圓環凹槽形和盤形兩種形制,前者有三個支架,后者多為一個支架。

    多枝燈實物較為少見,最具代表性的是十五連枝燈,形制如同一棵繁茂的大樹,支撐著十五個燈盞,燈盞錯落有致,枝上飾有游龍、鳴鳥、玩猴等,情態各異,妙趣橫生。

    自清末,煤油燈被引入中國。美觀的燈具,先進的燃料,以及科學的燃燒方式和數倍于老油燈的亮度,使它一下子吸引住了國人的眼球。特別是有些外國的石油公司,把煤油燈作為銷售自己石油產品的敲磚,推向中國的老百姓。他們給中國人提供免費的煤油燈具,甚至免費供應一部,讓人們試用。

    在解放初期以及六七十年代沒有通電的農村地區普遍使用的還是煤油燈,只有孩子寫作業的時候才把燈光調亮些。即便如此,在微風中忽明忽暗上下跳動的燈光依舊照不了多遠,幾個孩子只能圍燈而坐。時間稍長,就會兩眼昏黑。

    蠟燭的出現

    蠟燭被認為是最早出現于公元前30世紀的古埃及,當時古埃及人把蘆葦插在融化的牛脂內制成蠟燭。直到中世紀,南歐及地中海沿岸的蠟燭仍是由牛脂和羊脂制成。中國南唐時期,南唐烈祖李晟下令以出產自江浙一帶的柏樹油脂取代動物油脂制成蠟燭,令其制作價格大幅下降,使蠟燭從此在中國得以普遍應用。 

    現代化電燈的產生

    中國燈具工業最早起源于上海,上海市我國最早建立的現代城市,使用現代燈具也最早,約在30世紀20年代就已經開始規模使用電燈。

    1921年,民族工商業者胡西園等試制成功第一只國產白熾燈,并于1923年開設中國亞浦耳電器廠,成為上海第一家由民族資本開設的電光源企業。1929年,甘鏡秋等民族工商業者又創立華德電光股份有限公司,生產真空長絲燈泡。

    新中國成立后,我國現代燈具工業迎來了發展的春天。20世紀50年代至60年代初期,是中國現代燈具發展的初潮。在這一段時間里,一大批新型現代化建筑的建設和裝修向當時的燈具行業提出了挑戰,并刺激著燈具工業的發展。

    1954年,上海建造“中蘇友好大廈”,配套燈具由上海3家燈具廠承制。經過將近1年的努力,燈具企業制造處大型吊燈、壁燈、吸頂燈等各類燈具。 

    中國燈具業飛速發展

    1963年復旦大學電光源研究室和亞明燈泡廠研制了我國第二代光源熒光高壓汞燈。此后,第一盞氫燈、第一盞氪燈、金屬鹵化物燈相繼問世并量產,中國電光源產業因此也向前跨越了一大步。上海對中國電光源產業發展功不可沒。

    1949年到1965年,中國燈具工業獲得了突飛猛進的發展,燈具產量急劇增加,燈具種類大大豐富,部分產品達到了國際先進水平。這一時期也是中國電燈快速普及的時期,城市開始吧普及電燈照明 

    LED燈具-節能燈是白熾燈的進步

    眾所周知,白熾燈是愛迪生的重要發明,這個重要的發明使人類從此告別了黑暗,迎來了光明,但是白熾燈太耗電了,它大概只有不到十分之一的能力才變成了光能,其它都是熱能,白白的被浪費掉了,所以人們都在想辦法要用新的光源來替代白熾燈,節能燈就應運而生了,由于它相比而言便宜又好制作,所以就得到了大量的應用,有逐步取代白熾燈的趨勢,節能燈取代白熾燈被稱為照明領域的第二次革命,同時,LED照明產品以更加優質的性能取代傳統節能燈也是一種趨勢,被稱為照明領域的第三次革命

     文章摘自:豆丁網

    快速導航
    瑞祥祥云app瑞祥祥云app平台瑞祥祥云app主页瑞祥祥云app网站瑞祥祥云app官网瑞祥祥云app娱乐瑞祥祥云app开户瑞祥祥云app注册瑞祥祥云app是真的吗瑞祥祥云app登入瑞祥祥云app快三瑞祥祥云app时时彩瑞祥祥云app手机app下载瑞祥祥云app开奖 www.990066.com | www.xinyc5.com | www.13136d.com | www.48626.com | www.93936c.com | www.3524.com | www.712887.com | www.517075.com | www.276081.com | www.71399x.com | www.00840w.com | www.00840k.com | www.658zf.com | www.w413.com | www.kb8812.com | www.qile91.com | www.557079.com | www.1851017.com | www.396649.com | www.bc858.com | www.602472.com | www.097968.com | www.21202o.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.caipiao33s.com | www.16789k.com | www.bet233.com | www.fc37.net | www.727939.com | www.759585.com | www.234297.com | www.35155v.com | www.2350w.com | www.317594151qq.com | www.69989c.com | www.65609g.com | www.41186868.com | www.864355.com | www.50788o.com | www.5095q.com | www.3050kk.com | www.q7720.net | www.399895.com | www.17808f.com | www.535666e.com | www.87668l.com | www.9050.cc | www.759009.com | www.e6806.com | www.jxcp2222.com | www.901176.com | www.66653y.com | www.c6386.com | www.31121c.com | www.y50222.com | www.3066.com | www.87668y.com | www.c1379.com | www.443187.com | www.622777j.989.sb | www.38994.com | www.80065f.com | www.99jth.com | www.168tiger.com | www.6623r.com | www.907883.com | www.88266w.com | www.13067117972.com | www.v15565.com | www.0764400.com | www.431776.com | www.8039s.com | www.xpj70046.com | www.4591237.com | www.716866.com | www.26299h.com | www.fh9299.com | www.01885j.com | www.775703.com | www.3416m.com | www.13498b.com | www.6132.com | www.101136.com | www.690xj.com | www.200657.com | www.77075rr.com | www.77802e.com | www.caipiao33m.com | www.65609l.com | www.749996.com | www.080wy.com | www.28839966.com | www.912156.com | www.5441g.com | www.long8351.com | www.656270.com | www.663by.com | www.06966f.com | www.8438b.cc | www.24107u.com | www.hg9665.vip | www.96386b.com | www.1593n.com | www.74660c.com | www.81520v.com | www.883399s.com | www.hga8585.com | www.15355l.com | www.long8955.com | www.627868.com | www.c1336.com | www.38681b.com | www.177478.com | www.hd8588.com | www.www3305132.com | www.80065h.com | www.025574.com | www.9014.com | www.118c91.com | www.47922x.com | www.55228k.com | www.x33h.vip | www.295570.com | www.83335i.com | www.js09.com | www.cf9902.com | www.1915885.com | www.80075q.com | www.3421ff.com | www.711876.com | www.9924999.com | www.939326.com | www.89338c.com | www.87576006.com | www.361706.com | www.1010190.com | www.pa99.com | www.l678992.com | www.118gc.com | www.ya115.com | www.88839s.com | www.53531.cc | www.7050ee.com | www.zdj71.com | www.96386l.com | www.lehu894.com | www.665773.com | www.f007f.com | www.862870.com | www.1227625137.com | www.812000.com | www.55039y.com | www.286888c.com | www.gyfc3.com | www.3641.com | www.44553801.com | www.7498.com | www.9699pj.com | www.966013.com | www.23778v.com | www.860836.com | www.xingji06.com | www.444957.com | www.zlh345.com | www.031566.com | www.xsj609.com | www.50052hh.com | www.189hhg.com | www.50052r.com | www.2041r.com | www.55yfa.com | www.123456.cc | www.701666b.com | www.523432.com | www.yhjt288.com | www.444627.com | www.tyccp45.com | www.77114t.com | www.9478.com | www.55czj.com | www.96500.com | www.fc-vip3.com | www.401279.com | www.9799aa.com | www.26299u.com | www.3018fff.com | www.x61515.com | www.914979.com | www.lehu611.com | www.50080s.com | www.39919r.com | www.18388773738.com | www.lcw997.com | www.063022.com | www.83993p.com | www.99772337.com | www.xpj360.com | www.330297.com | www.w623333.com | www.09gcw.com | www.605555.com | www.659743.com | www.26878d.com | www.93884.com | www.565522g.com | www.97655r.com | www.7558a.vip | www.wc20150107.com | www.178723.com | www.65188t.com | www.619663155.com | www.558414.com | www.760760h.com | www.dhy4545.com | www.550423.com | www.xx00558.com | www.009758.com | www.391438.com | www.3018ppp.com | www.caipiao33t.com | www.177249.com | www.zb5388.com | www.0707072.com | www.77803h.com | www.bc858.com | www.10889c.com | www.063wy.com | www.711414.com | www.55755a.com | www.18381562229.com | www.55885g.com | www.015.com | www.jinshavip0088.com | www.66fft.com | www.500907.com | www.455959.com | www.yt206.com | www.016ac.com | www.193723.com | www.90661.com | www.ttcp77777.com | www.ac3177.com | www.151880.com | www.134345.com | www.060hhh.com | www.sb7704.com | www.71399j.com | www.835.cc | www.68349455.com | www.46311i.com | www.88ttz.com | www.97655t.com | www.2800kjz.com | www.www68666c.com | www.dzjgw2222.com | www.5091g.com | www.191059.com | www.033311.com | www.68909455.com | www.long8305.com | www.jinsha432.com | www.50080y.com | www.370619.com | www.1555a.com | www.38390l.com | www.97077l.com | www.7605d.com | www.65719.cc | www.60108k.com | www.675066.com | www.hy946.com | www.ss00558.com | www.pj717777.com | www.am452.com | www.986jc.com | www.12455n.com | www.480840.com | www.835.cc | www.9911493.com | www.vv00558.com | www.lehu1666.com | www.136777.vip | www.df92225.com | www.6832g.com | www.71399t.com | www.602465.com | www.kj328.com | www.59677v.com | www.8898ccc.com | www.9799aa.com | www.56855t.com | www.0096nn.com | www.df92221.com | www.267by.com | www.06500w.com | www.36166hh.com | www.101220.com | www.583792.com | www.903029.com | www.546611.com | www.59677t.com | www.558718.com | www.yh5670.com | www.tyccp15.com | www.66699555.com | www.k3mmm.com | www.hg19938.com | www.8414s.com | www.77224d.com | www.05xpj.com | www.86333e.com | www.99029c.com | www.c5617.com | www.qucw3.com | www.9889hc.com | www.5095n.com | www.5086h.com | www.22505.cc | www.588yc.com | www.2875n.com | www.6769q.com | www.371w.cc | www.5dwj.com | www.y186f.com | www.xh8063.com | www.8233999.com | www.1823ppp.com | www.18604446747.com | www.77009h.com | www.v4065.com | www.csj5811.com | www.u2665.com | www.long8506.com | www.7345w.com | www.955788a.com | www.98777v.com | www.3978x.com | www.21511k.com | www.26278a.com | www.bxcp66.com | www.509866.com | www.044592.com | www.33598p.com | www.9478u.com | www.qm26.com | www.v78933.com | www.hgx20088.com | www.8702yh.com | www.84881l.com | www.88110524.com | www.ok3332.com | www.670137.com | www.055979.com | www.60108m.com | www.hx1114.com | www.13886211319.com | www.f7383.com | www.6668888y.com | www.www.33741.com | www.228811.com | www.526121.com | www.50074a.com | www.105ak.com | www.7860cc.com | www.long272.com | www.667178.com | www.hy97777.com | www.700539.com | www.68689m.com | www.7777ho.com | www.js8904.vip | www.19019f.com | www.baobo22.com | www.392243.com | www.101220.com | www.022t.cc | www.n34348.com | www.81866h.com | www.48438q.com | www.544097.com | www.83033x.com | www.334486.com | www.qq035.com | www.73609e.com | www.620316.com | www.61655t.com | www.99929r.com | www.98888kj.com | www.4963.com | www.268177.com | www.600hc.com | www.zb968.com | www.65188a.com | www.904830.com | www.12455b.com | www.99929w.com | www.zr440.com | www.gbt9.com | www.77803b.com | www.xj9025.com | www.0698899.com | www.33210a.com | www.kc88y.com | www.48488x.com | www.99830222.com | www.996763.com | www.76520c.com | www.25288p.com | www.00443885.com | www.349077.com | www.hw1100.com | www.350555.com | www.552400.com | www.53911d.com | www.dzjgw2222.com | www.bm1266.vip | www.244343.com | www.66356b.com | www.abdwc56.com | www.fh7557.com | www.885pz.com | www.s252599.com | www.50086.net | www.7782l.com | www.888877f.com | www.634900.com | www.16878p.com | www.j7027.com | www.870011.com | www.8499y.com | www.tyccp12.com | www.108444.com | www.1035g.com | www.3846n.com | www.870080a.com | www.1555hc.com | www.960603.com | www.548611.com | www.99029c.com | www.55080p.com | www.66653x.com | www.83335bb.com | www.151789.com | www.3126q.com | www.dlchebas.com | www.317097.com | www.jsc8588.com | www.lyc555.com | www.9478v.com | www.7433045.com | www.338061.com | www.621155a.com | www.623608.com | www.0014d.com | www.5593n.com | www.78700i.com | www.lfa691.com | www.rcw8855.com | www.1823sss.com | www.118717.com | www.2350u.com | www.55917ff.com | www.68689o.com | www.6199ppp.com | www.500823.com | www.csj5877.com | www.858899a.com | www.66356v.com | www.js29.com | www.061wy.com | www.1384838.com | www.25688c.com | www.11223i.com | www.68689f.com | www.44117y.com | www.35155q.com | www.32668a.com | www.71233z.com | www.80078i.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.766675.com | www.54968f.com | www.wp5858.com | www.97655q.com | www.38135d.com | www.68689e.com | www.66yh765.com | www.36787j.com | www.9411zz.cc | www.35918j.com | www.98777v.com | www.5091b.com | www.4449045.com | www.qmkl7.com | www.908901.com | www.rfdc04.com | www.890751.com | www.33ii8332.com | www.160881.com | www.8559888.com | www.73736d.com | www.8833bygj.com | www.xpj5699.com | www.00565.com | www.8547d.com | www.332807.com | www.1489r.com | www.29277k.com | www.618484.com | www.696023.com | www.827021.com | www.lehu8688.com | www.33598b.com | www.30007m.com | www.282906.com | www.565378.com | www.suncity1988.com | www.26299c.com | www.88336v.com | www.01779.app | www.546477.com | www.p99831.com | www.5091a.com | www.18123a.com | www.22557app.com | www.50064k.com | www.2371t.com | www.a15208202113.com | www.77djcp.com | www.670303.com | www.9982002.com | www.607323.com | www.636450.com | www.33yfa.com | www.876488.com | www.0290c.com | www.679by.com | www.960885.com | www.wap.020vnsr.com | www.3933o.cc | www.795917.com | www.7345y.com | www.hy5955.com | www.608115.com | www.toucai99.com | www.701666e.com | www.178651.com | www.33443882.com | www.16181o.com | www.71399h.com | www.ff555.com | www.38135l.com | www.lczg0.com | www.426689.com | www.4591209.com | www.7477pj.com | www.66376z.com | www.554007.com | www.017668.com | www.464522.com | www.106235.com | www.490msfl312299.com | www.long165.com | www.9889hc.com | www.444160.com | www.3379ee.com | www.1227c.com | www.9889hc.com | www.369062.com | www.95011h.com | www.hg58554.com | www.hx1199.com | www.150881.com | www.996335.com | www.h99993.com | www.21819g.com | www.87668x.com | www.810702.com | www.7726u.com | www.longdu16.vip | www.cb0999.com | www.66652c.com | www.966829.com | www.88839q.com | www.lehu0188.com | www.055738.com | www.91233g.com | www.513550.com | www.142988.com | www.23699o.com | www.77gg18.com | www.50732l.com | www.luck808.com | www.335515.com | www.bb888855.com | www.hg156.store | www.cai009.vip | www.15355o.com | www.514918.com | www.7713660.com | www.31788j.com | www.883425.com | www.079042.tv | www.022am.cc | www.34788d.com | www.511079.com | www.2680.com | www.582466.com | www.65858s.com | www.9991800.com | www.8124p.com | www.588yc.com | www.97655t.com | www.330836.com | www.974288.com | www.2929a.com | www.e10611.com | www.bet586365.com | www.18559z.com | www.8052779.com | www.595hc.com | www.81520d.com | www.109026.com | www.xcw866.com | www.7656.com | www.ll3122ll.com | www.59199u.com | www.yc9119.com | www.vnsr2018b.com | www.ddw678.com | www.f005f.com | www.jyh3888.com | www.23040.com | www.4189c.com | www.49956y.com | www.33997y.com | www.009275.com | www.359215.com | www.596233.com | www.863630.com | www.c559.net | www.732159.com | www.8866tm.com | www.jinguan066.com | www.35655f.com | www.88839o.com | www.163888ee.com | www.0024034.com | www.4923c.com | www.7433045.com | www.hlg65.com | www.85770f.com | www.1007m.com | www.4853k.com | www.97679888.com | www.607536.com | www.yh92.cc | www.4323a.com | www.7811qq.com | www.7894q.com | www.65609h.com | www.1315123.com | www.00004100.com | www.01885u.com | www.bb9114.com | www.2349055.com | www.375375n.com | www.200590.com | www.24649.com | www.4947.com | www.675266.com | www.504033.com | www.180435.com | www.81233k.com | www.12455h.com | www.12455t.com | www.669by.com | www.kkkk0105.com | www.17723621868.com | www.yh99987.com | www.612903.com | www.449298.com | www.xpj6888.cc | www.99929d.com | www.7384jjj.com | www.44996c.com | www.786819.com | www.288645.com | www.50064w.com | www.50048.com | www.zg39.com | www.2714943196.com | www.jj4886.com | www.iq686.com | www.zr308.com | www.85511g.com | www.pj21bb.com | www.77797720.com | www.1851013.com | www.996410.com | www.55386.com | www.660665.com | www.89894c.com | www.9818o.cc | www.09323q.com | www.live0099.com | www.zdj85.com | www.24658.com | www.939623.com | www.106267.com | www.00665c.com | www.jyh3788.com | www.1111309.com | www.7894q.com | www.60ms3122uu.com | www.897743.com | www.77114p.com | www.087wy.com | www.c678992.com | www.80800m.com | www.77890b.com | www.699494.com | www.26878i.com | www.08199bb.com | www.8254d.com | www.cqcp00.com | www.666755.com | www.90305d.com | www.9fk.com | www.h88851.com | www.4932d.com | www.998009.com | www.095588.com | www.tang000.com | www.205776.com | www.6887nnnn.com | www.810897.com | www.83033y.com | www.1138d.net | www.6668888u.com | www.816664.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.28440000.com | www.tz124.com | www.62770011.com | www.196302.com | www.okw7.com | www.39937.com | www.96mso9993122.com | www.202115.com | www.hx5577.com | www.7878011.com | www.pjw68.com | www.87668a.com | www.7605s.com | www.85770y.com | www.jjjj.com | www.62118f.com | www.7004pj.com | www.15053311.com | www.444246.com | www.sfk3.com | www.9993709.com | www.gzjekj.com | www.51515s.com | www.0239z.com | www.792051.com | www.286967.com | www.695xj.com | www.8364006.com | www.712012.com | www.080wy.com | www.80800c.com | www.466780.com | www.1035l.com | www.06966j.com | www.49511b.com | www.5086z.com | www.tz093.com | www.279111.com | www.6364d.com | www.ga361.com | www.21108.com | www.679by.com | www.86126555.com | www.725898.com | www.aa0090.com | www.toucai66.com | www.374511.com | www.sb3005.com | www.934533.com | www.96386c.com | www.883399z.com | www.71480011.com | www.80767y.com | www.87576005.com | www.914905.com | www.csgc3.com | www.40818e.com | www.129989.com | www.4737006.com | www.8015.com | www.371u.cc | www.4880o.com | www.177804.com | www.dzjgw6666.com | www.996335.com | www.1035o.com | www.xpj288.cc | www.022197.com | www.hh962.com | www.960923.com | www.533676.com | www.3978z.com | www.50054d.com | www.pj40888.com | www.375951.com | www.660756.com | www.74313.com | www.cp208.com | www.5370555.com | www.66368.com | www.999308a.com | www.66653s.com | www.619949.com | www.452817.com | www.4225888.com | www.950596.com | www.21819b.com | www.499551.com | www.hf5885.com | www.4688377.com | www.658zf.com | www.37570s.com | www.00840b.com | www.566530.com | www.78949q.com | www.j15hh.com | www.25688h.com | www.6116005.com | www.50051a.com | www.8770888.com | www.65707y.com | www.3339965.com | www.73166b.com | www.4853k.com | www.53911c.com | www.wap.85770y.com | www.49956q.com | www.8850w17.com | www.77802d.com | www.31788h.com | www.8667q.com | www.3978w.com | www.u936.com | www.7h8h9h.net | www.039155.com | www.670086.com | www.888.ni | www.544095.com | www.wz2599.com | www.79520d.com | www.ylam07.com | www.14177.com | www.cccppp99.com | www.x4808.com | www.ttsfzx.com | www.fh8998.com | www.234287.com | www.138761.com | www.32123l.com | www.202345.com | www.kkkk0010.com | www.810277.com | www.620561.com | www.54400z.com | www.3775y.com | www.igcp6.com | www.665500.net | www.8999z.com | www.81678q.com | www.sjg007.com | www.ztc7.com | www.982799.com | www.777cp163.com | www.36166c.com | www.80lasi.com | www.70366b.com | www.631012.com | www.x33j.vip | www.2632a.com | www.ok299.com | www.678js444.com | www.29178d.com | www.cccppp33.com | www.js986.com | www.217113.com | www.68739455.com | www.k27777.com | www.607663.com | www.892380.com | www.qm26.com | www.717226.com | www.yh2531.com | www.38wcp.com | www.807839.com | www.422111.com | www.050.la | www.98528f.com | www.55984a.com | www.hy5501.com | www.560671.com | www.55917mm.com | www.98345dd.com | www.326477.com | www.88839t.com | www.99980a.com | www.68689o.com | www.094v.com | www.lb68.me | www.cll168.com | www.899621.com | www.88993t.com | www.139777.tv | www.188721.com | www.vns2.vip | www.js33374.com | www.9149q.com | www.rcw8899.com | www.87680138.com | www.caipiao33f.com | www.81233q.com | www.9900001.com | www.7344999.com | www.24czj.com | www.346577.com | www.6566898.com | www.p6002.com | www.bxcp3.com | www.382688.com | www.6766mm.com | www.long397.com | www.30xw.com | www.175568.com | www.4146.com | www.49001c.com | www.xh8026.com | www.50026b.com | www.984411.com | www.33a61.com | www.yh0222.cc | www.3890a.com | www.369965.com | www.147388.com | www.x33k.vip | www.ee2290.com | www.68568r.com | www.684077.com | www.646444.com | www.070322.com | www.855168u.com | www.65707p.com | www.599849.com | www.361888q.com | www.4443709.com | www.13266779567.com | www.23636g.com | www.351587.com | www.612999.com | www.c36531.com | www.lebet89.com | www.xpj8690.com | www.66653p.com | www.431776.com | www.901658.com | www.7g.ag | www.wns00.me | www.576138.com | www.82gcw.com | www.35155k.com | www.544010.com | www.3491.com | www.01885y.com | www.041234p.com | www.170678f.com | www.hj0555.com | www.55228g.com | www.178761.com | www.858399.com | www.375375b.com | www.65188z.com | www.le888p.com | www.feicai0370.com | www.6175888.com | www.5091x.com | www.43818s.com | www.355811.com | www.915399.com | www.91055.com | www.99929i.com | www.88850a.com | www.6199qqq.com | www.feicai0373.com | www.3095c.com | www.05gcw.com | www.33112r.com | www.52303w.com | www.256968.com | www.662182.com | www.s9478.comindex | www.38668.com | www.35655f.com | www.00880.app | www.994199.com | www.38345k.com | www.3421rr.com | www.19196969.com | www.yb-bc.com | www.09323r.com | www.gczj9.com | www.636by.com | www.21202f.com | www.87668y.com | www.50064y.com | www.81520u.com | www.156050.com | www.319126.com | www.501274.com | www.580296.com | www.634880.com | www.687044.com | www.755096.com | www.775979.com | www.01hfcp.com | www.846689.com | www.832795.com | www.820158.com | www.783802.com | www.99djcp.com | www.730719.com | www.643388.com | www.569799.com | www.504077.com | www.355711.com | www.bizhong55.com | www.178615.com | www.95333w.com | www.65707m.com | www.21202w.com | www.78700m.com | www.25688f.com | www.2632o.com | www.ya958.com | www.747626.com | www.wns123c.com | www.ke88888888.com | www.1389zz.com | www.dhy0058.com | www.33880g.com | www.a98885.com | www.80800w.com | www.8850w9.com | www.61322211.com | www.2247c.com | www.qm778.com | www.35354.com | www.715121.com | www.338996.com | www.68689d.com | www.50788k.com | www.096wy.com | www.7380yy.com | www.25288a.com | www.p5887.com | www.zdj59.com | www.9669js.com | www.493337.com | www.847677.com | www.181599.com | www.68682m.com |